Decolonization, Empowerment and Community
EDUC 849 - Artists, Society and Arts Education
This metissage weaves together threads from the teachings in Educ 849 - Artists, Society and Art Education, the events and happenings within my life, the creative process of my hand lettering journey and the accumulated life writings that I have produced along the way. From January 2019 to April 2019, these threads have intertwined and informed each other. This metissage merges these experiences and teachings together and serves as both visual and written evidence of how my perspective on life and education has shifted as a result.
There are three main themes that were the most prominent during my time in Educ 849: 1) our exploration through indigenous pedagogy and education, 2) the illumination of the strength and power of women throughout history and in my life and, 3) the cultivation of community mindedness. This metissage highlights the lessons I have learned with in each theme.
As I explored the technical art of Hand Lettering this semester, there were several quotes, ideas and mantras that caught my eye and my heart. These short words of wisdom and truth were redesigned into a series of hand lettered post cards. Throughout this Metissage, you will also find these post cards. They are closely related to each theme and will appear according to where they were the most impactful in my learning journey.
For Education to change us for the better, education must be rooted in critical thought and awareness of the dynamics that have brought us to where we are. We need to know our stories - as persons, families, communities, and Peoples - and we need to be the ones both telling and listening to them.
Cajete, Page 68
In pursuit of my Masters of Arts Education Degree, one of the biggest questions I had was how I could be a better ally to our Indigenous communities. I wanted more tools, more knowledge, more confidence and in some cases, permission to decolonize my classroom. Being born from an immigrant family, I am aware of my “settler” status and the privilege I have to work and live on unceded traditional land. At the same time, I am also aware of my role as a public educator which gives me the privilege to make a difference in the minds of the next generation. My mission is to continually find ways in which I can do my part to help with our slowly progressing journey to decolonize public education as a whole. While there is still so much to learn and discover, this semester I was offered a series of opportunities to better understand my role, to become more familiar with our local first nations cultures, and to respectfully bring this knowledge into my teaching practice.
This quest for decolonization comes from a place of personal truth and reconciliation. Being born and raised Catholic, my world shifted significantly after discovering some of the horrific truths about my religious community. As a person of deep faith, I have had to plainly accept these truths and take ownership of my responsibility to right the wrongs of those who have come before me. It has been a tough journey learning about how my religious community has treated others through out history - especially in connection to the colonization in Canada. There were many painful pills to shallow.
Upon learning more about the role that Christianity and Catholicism has played in the colonization of our First Nations people, a fire was ignited in my heart. It was a call to action. Truth and reconciliation starts with me. It is my responsibility as a settler and as a member for the Catholic faith to reconcile and stand in solidarity of our indigenous communities. I have not given up (and will never give up) on my faith and my religion but I will stand for making things right. We are people of an all knowing and all loving God. While there is a dark history, it does not rule out the possibility of a brighter, more inclusive, tolerant and harmonious future between all faiths and cultures. From attending local Pow Wows, to watching First Nations dance performances, to making more sustainable choices for the environment, I am finding new ways everyday to decolonize my life.
I am grateful for this course and this program for contributing to so much of my current knowledge in indigenous learning, pedagogy and culture. I am grateful for Vicki Kelly and our special guests for giving us the permission to experience indigenous ceremony, to hear indigenous stories, to study indigenous ways of learning, and to explore indigenous Coast Salish drum making and playing. I am grateful to be a public school educator who is encouraged by the ministry of education to integrate indigenous content and ways of knowing in our classrooms. I am grateful for these gifts of great opportunity. Now the question is, what do I do with these gifts? How do I use them? How do I share them? How do I apply them in a way that is authentic, relevant and respectful to both my own core beliefs and to our indigenous cultures?
Since the break of the new BC curriculum, I have been in a continual conversation with both my students and colleagues about how to authentically integrate indigenous content and ways of knowing into our everyday classroom. It has been a struggle to find any clear answers.
With guidance from our school aboriginal worker and various indigenous professional development workshops, our students are learning bits and pieces about first nations culture and history in their humanities and social studies classes. After learning more about our first nations communities, the horrifying truth about residential schools and the devastating effects of climate change on our environment, our students are responding with empathy and a longing for a more harmonious and sustainable future.
As a result of these teachings, two of my students created a beautiful duet to Tori Kelly’s cover of the song “Colours of the Wind” for this year’s Big Ideas Cross-Curricular Dance Showcase. Backed with a video that includes images of some of British Columbia’s natural environments and habitats, this piece was a tribute to our natural world and our local aboriginal communities. This piece was created with hope for harmony and sustainability.
While this piece was beautifully created, I could not help but think that there is still more to be done. This piece was just the beginning of a more integrated education. As a dance teacher, I always wondered how I could bring in first nations dance movement and technique into my classroom. And so, my journey continues.
On February 23, 2019 - I was able to watch an evening of dance performances at the Coastal Dance Festival with a colleague of mine, Ms. Laura Principe. Laura is an elementary school teacher who also had many unanswered questions about integrating indigenous content and ways of knowing into her everyday classroom. I was determined to find answers. To me, this show was one step closer to being able to introduce first nations dance and movement into my practice.
The show was exquisite. Filled with a variety of dance pieces form a range of first nations tribes and families. Each dance was unique to each family’s history and traditions. Each dance included dancers from of all ages and generations - grand parents, moms, dads, uncles, aunties, and children. Some dances were reenactments of hunting practices, others were dances created for honouring, mourning, and celebrating ancestors, others were prayers to the creator, others were tributes to the lessons and stories that animals have taught, others were re-tellings of both current and historic events. As an audience member, it was an eye opening experience to see, hear, and feel the diversity and complexity of indigenous culture emerge through dance.
After soaking it all in, I finally understood the necessity of receiving “permission” to teach indigenous dance. It is so specific to each nation and each family. It is so rooted in the complexity of indigenous identity that in order to receive permission to teach indigenous dance, a deep understanding and relationship must be established first. Permission can not be simply granted by taking a series of workshops and professional development seminars. Permission to teach indigenous dance is earned over time after beginning richly immersed in the culture. And so, my journey continues.
At the beginning of March our aboriginal support worker, Ms. Shelin Kassam, planned a week long cultural experience for our school. It was called “First Peoples in Residence Week” where students participated in variety of activities around First Nations art, dance, and story telling. For our dance classes we had Shyama-Priya, from The Wild Moccasin Dancers, teach a workshop on Pow Wow Dancing.
Knowing full well that I do not have permission to teach indigenous dance myself, opportunities like this has always been a gift to both myself and my students. Because First Nations dance has been around for thousands of years, several dance forms that have emerged post-colonization have taken inspiration from indigenous movement. Particularly in street dance, there are quite a few movement qualities and steps that are influenced by first nations dancing. This Pow Wow Dancing workshop was an opportunity for our breakers (most commonly known as “break dancers” in the media) to experience the similarities between pow wow dancing and breaking.
This semester, I have had the pleasure of being exposed to a plethora of indigenous related experiences, encounters, and learning opportunities. While my journey still continues, I have a greater sense of familiarity and openness to indigenous ways of being, learning and knowing. I am realizing that small steps really do make big changes.
As a result of my hand lettering practice this semester, I also created signage for the front door of my dance classroom. Classroom signage is about making the invisible visible. It is a daily visual reminder of the values and truths that align most with a holistic and decolonized education.
Today, my classroom is still a work in progress. It is a barely renovated space that was formally a visual art classroom and is now undergoing a very slow transformation into a dance/movement classroom.
Space and floors are very important elements for a dancer. It is what gives us permission to move and what supports our bodies as we jump, turn and expand. In acknowledgement of the unceded territories, this sign greets all who enter our space as a reminder and an honouring of the land we are so lucky to teach learn live and dance on. The sign includes the names of all three of the first nations that our school grounds are located on - the q̓ic̓əәy̓ (Katzie), q̓ʷa:ńƛəń (Kwantlen) and sam(i)yóme (Semiahmoo) First Nations. By virtue of creating and displaying this sign at the entrance of my classroom, my hope is that it will be one of hopefully many more indigenous encounters and learning experiences. And so, my journey continues.
A good mother grows into a richly eutrophic old woman, knowing that her work doesn’t end until she creates a home where all of life’s beings can flourish.
Kimmerer, Page 97
In a more subtle and unsuspecting way, the honouring and lifting up of women has been a consistent theme in my life journey for the past four months. Throughout history and in recent current events, the feminist movement has made some powerful strides for women’s rights and has challenged society’s expectations of what a woman should or not be or do. I am grateful to live in a time where “strong” is the new “beautiful.”
While it may not have been an explicit course objective, the impact, influence and strength of women has also been a reoccurring theme in our weekly discussions and experiences in EDUC 849. As a female dominant Masters in Arts Education cohort, I am constantly inspired by how nurturing, insightful, open, and resilient each of us are. We are daughters, mothers, aunties and sisters who all share in the struggles and victories of the female experience. Through life writings we also shared stories of the women in our lives who have loved us, fought for us, and inspired us.
The making and sounding of our Coast Salish drums this semester was a particularly empowering experience. After working through trial and error during the construction of our drums, Ashley Chow and I gifted our finished drum to each other. She has been such a source of light and support through out this program and I am grateful to have gone through this drum making process with her. These drums are now also symbols of our sisterhood.
It wasn’t until we learned the Women’s Warrior Song however, that our drums and their teaching’s truly came to life for me. With guidance from Vicki Kelly, Heather Myers and Jennie Blankinship, we were taught how to sound our drums with pride, power and purpose. The resonance of our drums filled the room each day and the sound of our voices echoed through call and response. I was empowered just by hearing the collage of predominantly female voices sing, sound and chant together. By doing this each day we were reminded of the beauty that can be created if we work in harmony and in support of one another. I am grateful to know, learn and practice this song as it’s melody will stick with me in times of doubt and weakness. It will remind me that I, too, am a warrior!
Many of our guest teachers and speakers this semester were influential female artists, educators and scholars. On March 8, 2019 - I was lucky to have met yet another influential aboriginal woman, Ms. Lisa Shepard. She one of our guest teachers for First People’s in Residence Week at my school, North Surrey Secondary. With her heart on her sleeve, Lisa taught my dance students about Metis jigging and culture. It was serendipitous to have Lisa visit our school as I have been longing to have more indigenous dance experiences planned for my students (knowing full well that I did not have the permissions to do so myself). It was even more serendipitous to meet and learn from her on International Women’s Day! She spoke about the history and identity of the Metis First Nations and also spoke about her personal journey as a Metis jigger. She taught my students a variety of movement sequences that were both equally fun and rhythmically challenging. And she also went on to share stories of her experiences as a national Metis jigger competitor. As my students dived into this dance form that was completely new to them, Lisa presented it in a way that was relevant and engaging. My students were left with smiles on their face and a new found appreciation for indigenous dance. I could tell that they would love to have her come in again as she was only able to scratch the surface with us in the short 80-min class she taught.
After her workshop, I reached out to Lisa Shepard about the possibility of future visits and collaborations. I recognized that that in order to integrate indigenous movement in my classroom, I needed to establish strong relationships and collaborations with indigenous artists first. I saw with my own eyes how authentic the experience was learning Metis jigging from an actual Metis dancer (which is something I definitely would not have been able to deliver). I look forward to collaborating with Lisa Shepard again as as I continue my journey.
Outside of our course content and my teaching practice, this theme of women empowerment was also evident in other areas of my life. On February 19, 2019 - my mother retired after 40 years of service as a nurse. Her journey to her dream career wasn’t easy. Being born and raised in a third world country, being the only child out of five siblings to graduate from university, learning English as second language, traveling aboard at 18 years old and starting a new life in Canada, Nurse Nelia had her share of trials and sacrifices in order to stand where she stands proudly today. She retired from her duties at the Surrey Memorial Hospital and immediately booked a vacation to tour Europe. I could not think of a more deserving woman. I could not be more proud to be her daugther and I could not ask for a better role model.
Around the same time as my mother’s retirement, the greater Vancouver street dance scene was also celebrating strong and influential women. On February 16, 2019, the all female street dance crew Diamonds in the Rough celebrated their 10 year anniversary. Highlighted at this momentous event were some of the top female trail blazers in our Vancouver street dance scene. I felt so lucky and honoured to have had them as my teachers, mentors, and friends. It is because of strong female trail blazers like Kim Sato, Natasha Gorrie, Christina Bucci and Liz Vaesen, that dancers like myself and all those who came after them can pursue dance with confidence in a predominantly male dance culture. These ladies empower me everyday to be strong, to be loud and to be a proud female artist. Being at this event, reconnecting with them and honouring them in this way was a truly special moment for our street dance community.
As I reflect and honour the women in my life that have impacted, inspired and supported me, I look inward to myself and think of the kind of woman that I want to be. I want to be a good friend and an insightful scholar like my friend Ashley Chow. I want to be an engaging teacher and advocate for decoloinizing public education like Lisa Shepard. I want to be resilient and hard working like my mother. I want to be a fierce female dance artist like Natasha Gorrie. I want to be wildly and apologetically my female self. These past four months have been rich with empowering experiences and gentle reminders that I am capable of so much.
I am not yet a mother. Although, some day I would love to be. The closest thing I’ve got to children are the students I teach. I call myself a “Dance Mom” because in many ways I believe that I do take on a mothers role. As a dance teacher, I naturally develop close relationships with my students because in dance we deal with the matters of the heart and soul. As I watch my students play, create and discover their artist voice, I see the future. And just like the incredible women who have inspired me growing up, I recognize my role as their teacher and the responsibility I have to be a “good mother” and “good role model.”
This semester the North Surrey Break Team battled at two separate break battle events. At both events, our team represented 90% of the B-Girls who attended and competed. These girls, my students, are now the trial blazers for the next generation. By showing up, and participating in today’s break culture, they are leading by example for all future B-Girls in our city. As their teacher, I could not be more proud!
Through art we explore what is possible. Every time these B-Girls show up to practice and attend a battle they are discovering more possibilities for themselves. They are pushing boundaries everyday by proving that girls can be brave, girls can be aggressive, girls can be tough, girls can battle, and girls can break too! In a male dominant dance style, it is not easy. But these girl show and prove every single time. By showing up and doing they work, they empower themselves, they empower each other and they empower me. I may be their “dance mom” but they teach and inspire me just as much, if not more than I could ever teach and inspire them.
It takes a community to teach a community. This community-mindedness is grounded in a sense of tradition; in responds to the needs of the greater whole; it depends on the skills, energies and creativity of the present generation; and it prepares the way for generations to come.
Cajete, Page 83
At this stage in my teaching career, Gregory Cajete’s book “Indigenous Community,” really resonated with me as I look forward to a continuing contract at my current school, North Surrey Secondary. After having worked at several different school communities, I am grateful to have returned to North Surrey Secondary on a permanent contract. At this school, the staff and the students make this place feel like home. As I replant my roots here, am beginning to envision the development of my career over 5 years, 10 years and even 20 years down the road. My hope is to grow and maintain a healthy and holistic community of learners within the dance program. Taking inspiration form Cajete, my hope is to base the structure of our dance community on the Timeless Elements of Indigenous Community that Cajete describes early in his book. These elements are said to “embody the essence of what Indigenous Peoples have envisioned as ethical and true aspects of human community” (Cajete, page 25). While Cajete describes these elements as idealized perspectives for indigenous communities I believe that these elements would also benefit our dance community too.
Before I get into the specific elements, it is important to mention that the dance program at this school has had a long and beautiful history. Established in 2005 under the guidance of Ms. Shirley Clements, this dance program has trained, raised and educated several generations of students before me. Now that I have the pleasure of being the continuing dance teacher here. It is my responsibility to honour the legacy of this program while also introducing positive and necessary changes for the benefit of our currently and future students.
The following sections represent the 12 Timeless Elements of Indigenous Community followed by my reflections on how they apply to the dance community at North Surrey Secondary. Some of these reflections are action plans to improve these elements over time while others are acknowledgements of how these elements are already currently thriving. Establishing a holistic and healthy learning community is a very important educational value for me as an educator. Reflecting on these elements allows me to check in with the structures we do or do not (yet) have in place in order to cultivate a healthy community.
In indigenous communities, all adults are conditioned and expected to take on an active role in caring for all children. In our North Surrey dance community however, the parents and other staff members have not yet played an “active” role in supporting our students in dance. Aside from signing permission forms and arranging rides to and from dance events, there has never been a culture of active parent involvement. To be clear, I do not feel that this is on account of bad parenting or lack of support. Rather, I believe this is simply due to the fact that our parents have never really been actively invited or called upon for help by the dance teacher. Moving forward, I intend to start building a more active relationship with the parents of my students. I intend to connect with them right at the beginning of the year in order to inform them of how they can be more involved in their child’s dance journey. From there I will also check in every few months to reach out for help for certain events and to communicate any information that will aid in their child’s growth (such as dance scholarship information). Building this connection with parents could also reassure them of my intentions as an educator and could reaffirm that their child’s involvement in the arts is beneficial for their child’s overall development.
In indigenous communities, children were taught early on the significance of family, responsibility and respect. Years ago, the students at North Surrey Secondary created a hashtag for the dance community - #nosurdfam. During the rise of social media culture, #nosurdfam was developed as a shorthand for North (no) Surrey (sur) Dance (d) Family (fam). Our students within the dance community have already identified themselves as members of larger family. Fast forward a few years later, I found that our dancers really need to be taught and reminded of what #nosurdfam really means. Being a family means to build relationships with each other outside of the context of our dance rehearsals. Being a family means to support and connect with each other on a human level. Being a family means to open our hearts to one another, reach for help, offer help, spend time together etc. As the generation of dancers cycle through the dance program, the definition of #nosurdfam needs to consistently invested in.
In indigenous communities, members learn how to work with a diverse group of people. At North Surrey, we have a diverse group of dancers. Four of the most dominant dance styles are hip-hop, breaking, contemporary and bhangra. Each of these styles have their own competitive dance teams and have their own mini-communities established. Within the context our of dance classes we diversify even more by including other genres of dance such as tap, tinikling, locking, popping, waacking, house, hustle, jive, jigging, pow wow dancing etc. Diversity and versatility are big values in our community as it is important to be exposed to a variety of styles in order to build a wider appreciation for all kinds of dance, music and cultures. Learning a diverse range of styles also diversifies the range of movement qualities that can be incorporated into their student choreographed dance works.
4) Special Status
In indigenous communities, all children are considered carriers of the future. Because our community is within a high school context, our seniors include students in grades 11 and 12 and our juniors include students in grades 8 through 10. Our junior students are absolutely the future of our community. They are tomorrow’s artists, dancers and leaders. I am so fortunate this year to have the support of my department head in my mission to have Dance 8 included as a course in the Performing Arts 8 Rotation. The experiences that our junior dancers have in their first year will directly effect how they carry on in their journey. My hope is that I (along with my senior students) will be able to nurture their creative spirit and to build a space that they feel safe to take risks in, have fun in and be themselves in.
To welcome and honour our future junior dancers, our performing arts department organizes an annual Grade 7 Arts Camp. This day is one of my favourite days as our students perform their dances, host mini-workshops and share testimonials about what the dance community means to them. As a result of this day, the grade 7 students leave feeling inspired and excited to be a part of our community. On this say we invest on the carriers of our future.
5) Ethical Models
In indigenous communities, all members model morals and ethics. In our North Surrey Dance community we have a mantra than reads - Humans First. Artists Second. Dancers Third. In essence, “humans first” means that all members of our community must be treated with love and respect. This idea encompasses many more ethical guide lines depending on the situation like wearing clean shoes on the dance floor, informing teachers and coaches about absences, arriving to class/rehearsal on time, audience etiquette, rehearsal etiquette, respecting the judges decision at a competition, using kind and appropriate language/music, not leaving food or garbage in the dance studio etc. “Humans first” has been a huge theme in our classroom and dance teams this year as we define and refine what that means in every given context.
As a result of my hand lettering practice this semester, I also created classroom signage to be displayed on the inside of my classroom door. In my recent trip to New Orleans, I was inspired by the “Pride” and “Impact” signs that were displayed in the band room at Tulane University. These signs were such simple reminders of the values that this professor was cultivating in his classroom. In the same fashion, I created a visual reminder for my students - Humans First because we all deserve love and respect. Artists Second because we all have something to say and express. Dancers third because we are movers and doers. Each role builds on the other. My hope is that this daily visual reminder will encourage the values and ethics of our dance community within all who enter the space.
6) Clear Roles
In indigenous communities, everyone has and knows their role. This is a major growth area in our North Surrey dance community. Over the past few years, the roles of the teacher and senior dance leaders have always been shared but not clearly defined. Currently, I am still deliberating which roles I should be delegating to students or parents or industry professionals and which roles I should be taking care of on my own. I am grateful to have a lot of helping hands but at the moment each individual role is not yet clearly defined. My hope is that within the next year I will be able to define what each dance leader is responsible for and who will take care of other roles such as poster design, costume and team gear design, video taping performances, social media, concession etc.
7) Customs and Practices
In indigenous communities, there are traditional customs, practices, and activities to support community values and relationships. In our North Surrey Dance community we have a variety of customs and practices that we have established this year to promote community mindedness. In September we put on a open house and pre-audition workshops to ring in the new year and welcome new dancers into our home. Each week the senior dance students host Workshop Wednesdays where one senior dance student teaches a fun dance combo during the lunch hour. On Fridays, our junior dance students also host a workshop series but for Grade 8’s only. This is to provide a less intimidating and beginner friendly environment. Within our dance classes we have established themed days such as Technique Tuesdays, Throwback Thursdays, and Freestyle Fridays. Each of these themed days works of elements of dance that is outside of choreography such as technique and improvisation.
In indigenous communities, social events are held to honour and acknowledge group and individual achievements. In a similar way, our North Surrey Dance community recognizes and honours our dance student leaders and unsung heroes at our semester-end shows and year-end pizza parties. We also offer dance grad scholarships to our grade 12 students who wish to continue pursuing dance after graduation.
9) Unique Learners
In indigenous communities, learning is differentiated and unique learning styles are accepted and honoured. Because our dance community is inclusive to so many different dance styles, cultures and levels, there is truly something for everyone. Our classes are based on a three level structure: beginner, intermediate and advanced. This leveling structure allows students in each level to thrive and to learn at a pace that is appropriate for their physical skill level. All students of all abilities are welcome.
10) Community Work
In indigenous communities, every member of the community is involved in projects that are “for the good of the people.” This year our students were involved in the Big Ideas Dance Showcase which is a community showcase that raises money for local charities. My hope is that we continue to find more opportunities like this in order to increase our over all community involvement. For example, performances for awareness such as Anti-Bullying Day or Orange Shirt Day or performing at a seniors home would all be great ways to use our art “for the good of the people.” My hope is to place value on these community based performances just as much as we would place value in our competition based performances.
11 & 12) Environment and Spirit
In indigenous communities, nature is the frame for reality and spirituality / religious expression permeates. While both of these elements are quite strong in indigenous communities, I am still not clear on how to implement them within the context of our North Surrey Dance community. In connection with nature, as the weather gets warmer, I plan to bring my students outside to play, move and create. A small step but a step none the less. As for spirituality, my students come from a range of cultures and religions, my hope is that our community is inclusive enough to allow my students to be comfortable sharing and expressing their own spiritual beliefs. In order to encourage this, I plan to share my own faith-based and spiritual story with my students not with the intent evangelizing but with the intent of revealing the values and beliefs that have shaped who I am. It all comes back to humans first, artists second and dancers third. Our faith and religion plays a huge roll on who we are as humans.
I find that the 12 Timeless Elements of Indigenous Community are great check points to use in developing and refining the nuances of any given community. By reflecting on each element, areas of strength and growth have been identified and actionable steps can now be set in place. Community based learning engages students in such a powerful way and I look forward to witnessing the growth of my students because of it.
As a teacher, I want to acknowledge the significant power we share to determine the future of education and hence the future of humans.
Cajete, Page 22
Through the lenses of decolonization, women empowerment and community mindedness, my eyes have been opened to new levels of possibilities in both my humanness and my practice as an educator. Each of these themes have a call to action and reaffirms that what I do here truly matters. I am grateful for how seamlessly these threads of my life have been woven together. Through this course, through my practice and through my human experience, this metissage emerges. My journey continues and my knowledge deepens.
Cajete, G. (2015). Indigenous Community: Rekindling the Teachings of the Seventh Fire. St. Paul, MN: Living Justice Press.
Davidson, S. F., & Davidson, R. (2018). Potlach as Pedagogy: Learning Through Ceremony. Winnipeg, MA: Portage & Main Press.
Graves, T. D. (2017). Hand lettering: Creative alphabets for any occasion: Plus how to get started. New York: St. Martins Griffin.
Kimmerer, R. W. (2015). Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdom, scientific knowledge and the teachings of plants. Minneapolis: Milkweed Editions.
Wagamese, R. (2016). Embers: One Ojibways meditations. Madeira Park, British Columbia: Douglas & McIntyre.